Cyclones in the South Asian region originate primarily from the Bay of Bengal. There are some pre existing favorable weather conditions, higher sea temperature and lower level cyclonic circulation. The life time of Cyclone in the Bay of Bengal is about (4) to (5) days according to the geography of Bay of Bengal. And they move initially North or Northwest in low latitude and recurve to North or Northeast around 18 Degree North latitude by the interaction of Cyclone vertical structure and its environments.
No Intensity Maximum wind
1 Low pressure Area less than (32)mph
2 Depression (32)-(38)mph
3 Cyclonic Storm (39)-(54)mph
4 Severe Cyclonic storm (55)-(72)mph
5 Very severe Cyclonic storm (73)mph and above
Cyclone Color coding scheme
Yellow Color Stage
Yellow color means a storm is formed but it not moving towards Myanmar Coasts.
Orange color Emergency Stage
Orange color means storm is heading towards Myanmar Coasts.
Red color Emergency stage
Red color emergency stage mean the storm is heading towards Myanmar Coasts and cross within next (12) hours.
Brown color Emergency Stage
Brown color Emergency Stage means the storm is crossing Myanmar Coasts currently.
Green color Stage
Green color Stage means the storm abated and situation is clear by storm.
Cyclone Season in Myanmar
Myanmar has two cyclone season, Pre Monsoon Months of Mid April to Mid May and Post Monsoon months of October and November. Department of Meteorology and Hydrology closely monitor the formation of cyclone in the periods by means of daily weather maps, upper air observation maps, Numerical weather forecast products and satellite images. Our main responsibility is to issue timely Cyclone News and warning to Higher Authorities, Local Authorities, relevant Ministries, Department, and Public for Emergency Response, prevention and disaster risk reduction.
Check lists for Cyclone Warning
Please note and make sure Cyclone warning
The term storm surge is the abnormal rise of sea level forced by meteorological conditions like storm’s central pressure and its maximum sustained wind. During the passage of cyclone, right side of landfall areas is maximum storm surge area in Northern Hemisphere. Height of storm surge combined with normal astronomical tide during the crossing closely link with the nature of topography, depth of coastal shelf, intensity of storm and angle of cyclone strike to the coasts, in general. Character of storm surge is similar with Tsunami but different in mechanisms. The Rakhine Coasts and Deltaic areas are vulnerable for storm surge and tsunami.
Flood Risk Reduction Initiative in DMH
Forecasting and Warnings
Forecasting of floods in advance enables a warning to be given to the people likely to be affected and further enables civil-defense measures to be organized. It thus forms a very important and relatively inexpensive non-structural flood-control measure. However, a flood warning is meaningful only if it is given sufficiently in advance. Also erroneous warning will cause the public to loose faith in the system. Thus, reliable forecasting and easily understandable warning information with sufficient lead-time are of vital importance for flood forecasting system.
The Department of Meteorology and Hydrology is using both simple and advance techniques on computer based river forecasting and flood warning system for issuing flood warning and bulletin to the users and public. The department is applying empirical models based on single and multiple regression analysis for forecasting peak flood level along Ayeyarwady and Chindwin rivers. The lead time for issuing flood warning is about one to two days for short range forecast and about three to five days for long range forecast, especially for deltaic area of Ayeyarwady. The flood forecasting and warning system of the department cover eight major river basins.
Daily stage or flow forecasting techniques, starting from simple stage correlation method to sophisticated conceptual models, such as sacraments model, SAAR model, HBV model and Tank model were installed calibrated and tested for operation use. Flood estimation and prediction is also undertaken by using flood frequency analysis. Although the flood forecasting and warning system for large rivers are considered to be adequate, there still exists the problem of flash floods at the smaller catchment.
Flood warnings are issued by the Hydrological division of DMH and they are disseminated through the radio, television as well as through the press for general public, and through telephones, SSB transceivers and other communication means for concerned government departments and agencies.
(22.9.2023): Monsoon is weak to moderate over the Andaman Sea and Bay of Bengal.