17-6-2024:Monsoon is moderate over the Andaman Sea and Bay of Bengal.


Disaster Risk Reduction

Cyclone Disaster


Cyclones in the South Asian region originate primarily from the Bay of Bengal. There are some pre existing favorable weather conditions, higher sea temperature and lower level cyclonic circulation. The life time of Cyclone in the Bay of Bengal is about (4) to (5) days according to the geography of Bay of Bengal. And they move initially North or Northwest in low latitude and recurve to North or Northeast around 18 Degree North latitude by the interaction of Cyclone vertical structure and its environments.

Cyclone Normenclature

No Intensity Maximum wind

1 Low pressure Area less than (32)mph

2 Depression (32)-(38)mph

3 Cyclonic Storm (39)-(54)mph

4 Severe Cyclonic storm (55)-(72)mph

5 Very severe Cyclonic storm (73)mph and above


Cyclone Color coding scheme

Yellow Color Stage

Yellow color means a storm is formed but it not moving towards Myanmar Coasts.

Orange color Emergency Stage

Orange color means storm is heading towards Myanmar Coasts.

Red color Emergency stage

Red color emergency stage mean the storm is heading towards Myanmar Coasts and cross within next (12) hours.

Brown color Emergency Stage

Brown color Emergency Stage means the storm is crossing Myanmar Coasts currently.

Green color Stage

Green color Stage means the storm abated and situation is clear by storm.

Cyclone Season in Myanmar

Myanmar has two cyclone season, Pre Monsoon Months of Mid April to Mid May and Post Monsoon months of October and November. Department of Meteorology and Hydrology closely monitor the formation of cyclone in the periods by means of daily weather maps, upper air observation maps, Numerical weather forecast products and satellite images. Our main responsibility is to issue timely Cyclone News and warning to Higher Authorities, Local Authorities, relevant Ministries, Department, and Public for Emergency Response, prevention and disaster risk reduction.

Check lists for Cyclone Warning

  • Access latest weather news especially storm season.
  • Check not every Cyclone, which formed over the Bay of Bengal come and cross Myanmar Coasts.
  • Check Sections of Bay Bengal and adjoining Myanmar Coasts.
  • Cyclone News will come out if the cyclone moving away from Myanmar while Cyclone Warning will issue cyclone is heading to Myanmar.

Please note and make sure Cyclone warning

  1. Distance between Storm position and your location.
  2. Distance between storm path and your location.
  3. Intensity of storm, expected location of landfall areas and your location.
  4. Check the phase locking of Spring Tide or not during Cyclone and Tidal character of your location.

Storm Surge

The term storm surge is the abnormal rise of sea level forced by meteorological conditions like storm’s central pressure and its maximum sustained wind. During the passage of cyclone, right side of landfall areas is maximum storm surge area in Northern Hemisphere. Height of storm surge combined with normal astronomical tide during the crossing closely link with the nature of topography, depth of coastal shelf, intensity of storm and angle of cyclone strike to the coasts, in general. Character of storm surge is similar with Tsunami but different in mechanisms. The Rakhine Coasts and Deltaic areas are vulnerable for storm surge and tsunami.

Before Cyclone

  1. Watch local weather and listen updated weather news.
  2. Recognize the shortest way to safer place and shelter
  3. Do not spread rumours, nor listen to them, only official version of the warnings may be listened to through Radio/FM Radio.
  4. Prepare the emergency tool kits for your safety.
  5. Make sure that your radio set is fully serviceable. Keep an extra set of batteries.
  6. Check your house, repair doors and windows, wherever necessary.
  7. Check the way to evacuation site and/or shelter in advance if your location is risky for the storm surge probable area.
  8. Be sure the contact lists to contact local Search and Rescue Team, Local Authority ,Emergency Response Team and Health Care Uint.
  9. Prepare dry and instant food, medicine, Radio, Clothes, Batteries and pure water.
  10. Participate the drill for emergency response , search and rescue to reduce disasters risk.

During Cyclone

  1. Cut off power line and gas.
  2. Fasten and stay secured place if your building is going to collapse by the storm wind.
  3. Please do not go to the sea when you received a severe weather and storm warning.
  4. Please go to the safer place and/or shelter as soon as possible.
  5. Listen latest updated weather news continuously.
  6. Please wait and see at the safer place until the clear signal by authority concerned.
  7. If you are driving, stop it ! remain there if you are far from the sea, big tree, electrical power lines, reservoirs, dams.

After Cyclone

  1. Do not go outside without cleared and green color signal.
  2. Check gas leakage and electrical power lines for your safety.
  3. Follow the news and instructions carefully from the local incident command agency.
  4. Do not go back your residence without any suggestion by the authorities concerned.
  5. Beware of snake if you are going by road.
  6. Any loose and hanging wire from the lamp post should be strictly avoided and inform nearest electricity supply office immediately when you see.
  7. Beware the danger of Fire.
  8. Beware the cholera outbreak.
  9. Participate and coorperate to the Local Emergency Response services.


Flood Risk Reduction Initiative in DMH

Forecasting and Warnings

Forecasting of floods in advance enables a warning to be given to the people likely to be affected and further enables civil-defense measures to be organized. It thus forms a very important and relatively inexpensive non-structural flood-control measure. However, a flood warning is meaningful only if it is given sufficiently in advance. Also erroneous warning will cause the public to loose faith in the system. Thus, reliable forecasting and easily understandable warning information with sufficient lead-time are of vital importance for flood forecasting system.

The Department of Meteorology and Hydrology is using both simple and advance techniques on computer based river forecasting and flood warning system for issuing flood warning and bulletin to the users and public. The department is applying empirical models based on single and multiple regression analysis for forecasting peak flood level along Ayeyarwady and Chindwin rivers. The lead time for issuing flood warning is about one to two days for short range forecast and about three to five days for long range forecast, especially for deltaic area of Ayeyarwady. The flood forecasting and warning system of the department cover eight major river basins.

Daily stage or flow forecasting techniques, starting from simple stage correlation method to sophisticated conceptual models, such as sacraments model, SAAR model, HBV model and Tank model were installed calibrated and tested for operation use. Flood estimation and prediction is also undertaken by using flood frequency analysis. Although the flood forecasting and warning system for large rivers are considered to be adequate, there still exists the problem of flash floods at the smaller catchment.

Flood warnings are issued by the Hydrological division of DMH and they are disseminated through the radio, television as well as through the press for general public, and through telephones, SSB transceivers and other communication means for concerned government departments and agencies.